NIELIT DOEACC CCC Fundamentals of Computers Study Material in English
NIELIT DOEACC CCC Fundamentals of Computers Study Material in English:-
All of you are welcome in the post of NIELIT (DOEACC) CCC (Course on Computer Concept Study Material in English PDF Download) today in CCC Study Material in English NIELIT, you are going to read the Fundamentals of Computers Study Material in English PDF. Computer is based in which you are asked 100 questions. We have given you complete information in the post of your previous CCC Study Material in Hindi. You have also given the CCC question in the previous post, Answer: Answer in English. In the Syllabus, you are asked about the CCC Question Answer Paper Notes Model Paper Practice.
FUNDAMENTALS of COMPUTERS (CCC Study Material in English)
Let us begin with the word the word ‘compute’. It means to calculate, .We all are familiar with calculations in our day -to -day life. We apply mathematical operation like addition; subtraction, multiplication, etc. and many other formulae for calculations. Simpler calculations take less time But complex calculations take much longer time. Another factor is accuracy in calculations. so man explored with the idea to develop a machine, which can perform this type of arithmetic calculation faster, and with full accuracy. This gave birth to a device or machine called’
The computer we see today is quite different from the one made in the beginning. The number of applications of a computer has increased, the speed and accuracy of calculation has increased of in our day- to- day life. Reservation of timeline Air Lines and Railways, payment of telephone and electricity bills, deposits and withdrawals of one from banks, business data processing, medical diagnosis, weather life eelier. To appreciate the importance of system of a Weather forecasting, etc. are some or the areas where computer has become extremely useful.
However, there is one limitation of the computer. Human beings do calculation on their own. But computer is a dumb machine and it has to be given proper instructions to carry out its calculation. This is why we should know how a computer works.
Definition of computer (CCC Study Material in English PDF)
Computer is a fast and accurate electronic machine which accepts and stores information (data), processes the information based n instruction given to it and produces the desired results. A part from these function, we can type letters, draw pictures, make graphics, listen to music, see movies and also play games.
Need of computers (CCC Study Material in English Language)
Computers play a very important role in human lives. The primary purpose or using a computer is” to make life easier. To appreciate the importance of computers m todays world, let us consider a simple instance, say, the accounting system of a company. I we follow the conventional system, preparing a balance sheet would require about a month; whereas with a computer, this could be a matter of just a few hours. A balance sheet, prepared manually, is highly prone to errors and the scope for making corrections is very limited. However, if a computer is used in preparing a balance sheet, the likelihood oi committing errors is very remote and corrections can be carried out even at the kst moment. All the tasks performed by a computer may also be performed by human beings by human beings but at the expense of a iot of time and labor.
Consider the role played by computers in the field of medicine. With the information on case history of each patient stored in the computers memory, the doctor is freed from the burden of having to’ grope through bundles of papers for referring to a particular patient. All the information he/she needs not now bother about hair-splitting design parameters or interminable trials and errors, with the computer being at his command.
At home computers are useful for everyone. People can use a computer to keep a record of their daily expenditure as well as document important dates like birthdays being at his command.
Computers can be of immense utility to students. a student can use a PC to prepare motes, projects etc. or access information on the Internet, take online lessons and tests. Grampcs and’ animation can be used to make even the dullest of subjects lively and interesting. Apart from routine work, students can apply themselves to develop their creative skills by virtue of the myriad features a computer offers.
In a developing country like India, one or the reasons for people to go for a PC is the E-mail facility, since this is one of the most convenient, fastest and cheapest ways to communicate with friends, family and acquaintances within and outside the country. Internet chatting is also an interesting activity that attracts the young and the old alike. Computes provide us ready access to the latest news from all over the world.
A PC is not all about serious work. It also offers scope for games, movies, music and even comics that add to our entertainment. Children as well as adults have developed a fascination for this little machine. MP3, the compressed format for music files, allows us to store songs in a PC without taking up too much of hard disk space. And again, to-watch movies one -need not be connected to the internet. They can very well be watched on VCDs played on the PC.
A computer (PC) can also make for domestic bliss by bringing together the members of a family. Thereby making the family a closely knit unit. The family can plan the budget, watch a movie, play video games or work on other innovative things like drawing and designing of a picture, writing an article or sketching a cartoon the housewife can take-up one of the many lucrative online jobs that are being offered to people these days.
Parts of a computer (NIELIT CCC Study Material in English)
To learn more about the components of an computes, let us examine the various parts that are visible from outside. Basically, a. computer consists of a CPU, a monitor, a mouse and a keyboard. Some computers may also contain additional accessories like speaker, a microphone, a headphone etc. The additional accessories simply facilitate us to use the computer for doing something extra. A discussion on the essential! And optional components of the computer will be taken up later on in this chapter. For the moment, let us discuss the components of a simple computer.
Central Processing Unit
: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) of computer is usually located in a tower-shaped cabinet. The CPU consists of different smaller components like the motherboard, hard disk, RAM, floppy disk drive, sound card etc. These components are discussed in the next section.
Monitor is a television-like equipment which displays die output of a computer. Monitors can be monochrome (black and white), LCD (liquid crystal display), VGA or SVGA. Further, monitors can be analogue or digital.
Mouse (DOEACC CCC Study Material in English)
Mouse is a small component mat fits inside our palm. In contains buttons (two or three ) which help us work on a computer conveniently.
Keyboard (CCC Study Material Notes in English)
Keyboard is a typewriter like device which contains keys to feed information into the computer. Generally, keyboards are available in two models:
- The standard model with 83-84 keys; and
- The enhanced model. This model is more popular nowadays and contains 104 keys or more.
Components of a PC (CCC Study Material Download in English)
Before we actually work on a PC, it is essential to understand the functions of the components that from the core of a computer.
The computers in a PC work together as a team. As mentioned earlier, some of the components are essential, while others are optional. The additional parts enhance the range of tasks that can be performed on a computer or a PC, thus making ones work on the computer more efficient and easier. The essential and the optional components of a computer are listed in the following table.
Components of a PC Image
CCC Components of a PC Study Material in English
| Basic components
· Hard disk
· Display/video card
· Drives: Hard Disk, Floppy
· Disk and CD-ROM
· DVD drive
· Zip Drive
The System Unit (CCC Study Material PDF in English)
The System Unit is the most important part of a PC. It may be called the brain behind every action of a PC since it controls and executes all the operations performed by the PC. The system Unit holds the Windows Operating System. The keyboard, monitor, mouse, printer, etc. are all linked to the System Unit through cables which are plugged into the back of the System Unit. The hard disk, the floppy disk drive and the CD-ROM drive are placed inside this unit. You may also find the DVD drive and the removable storage device attached’ to the system unit.
(a) Hard Disk :
The hard disk is a device which stores ail programs and data in the computer. Hence, the hard disk is referred to as the memory is permanent so that the programs and data are not lost when the computer is turned off. Nowadays, the capacity of hard disk is measured in Giga Bytes (GB). Earlier, the memory capacity of computers was limited to Mega Bytes (MB). Today PCs having hard disks of capacities like 10 GB, 20 GB or 30 GB are popular. Larger the hard disk capacity, more the amount of software and information that can be stored in it.
Hard Disk Image
CCC Hard Disk Study Material
(b) Motherboard :
The motherboard is a flat platform of fibre glass on which the electronic components in a PC are mounted. Thin lines of metal connecting pins are etched on the surface of the fiberglass. These pins connect the components to one another, and form the electronic circuit of the computer. The motherboard is also called a Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
(c) Central Processing Unit (CPU) :
The Central processing Unit (CPU) is the most important component of a computer. It contains the microprocessor chip which undertakes all the thinking for the PC and runs the programs (series of instructions) according to the user’s commands and requests. Following are the various types of CPU chips:
- Intel Celeron
- Pentium IV
- AMD Athlon3
- Pentium III
- Pentium Pro
- AMD Duron
(d) CD-ROM Drive:
CD-ROM drive is a device that reads the information stored on CD-ROM disks. CD-ROM is an abbreviated term for ‘Compact Disk-Read only Memory A CD-ROM gives us the opportunity to only read its information. The information stored in a CD-ROM can neither be changed nor can new information be added to it. That is why, it is called Read Only Memory (ROM). The speed of a CD-ROM drive is indicated by a number followed by alphabet *X\ This number is an indication of how fast the disk spins. Faster the spin, faster is the transfer of information from the disk to the computer.-the 56X CD-ROM is currendy the most popular drive specification. For recording information on a CD, a special CD drive known as ‘CD-RW is used. The CD-ROM disk is flat and circular in shape and can store a lot more information as compared to a floppy disk. Today, the CD Drive has been replaced by the DVD Drive.
The CD Drive Image
CCC The CD Drive Study Material
(e) floppy Disk Drive :
Floppy disk drive is a component the enables us to read/store information on floppy disks. The floppy disk drive consists of a slot to accept a floppy disk, a motor to spin the disk, and a recording/reading device that moves across the disk to read or write data. A floppy disk (also called a diskette) is used to store information just as a hard capacity (1.44 MB ) is far less than that of a hard disk ( 20 GB or more). A PC can either have the 5!4″ floppy disk drive or the dVi” floppy disk drive, or both.
(f) Math Co-processor Slot :
Some PCs contain a slot where a Math Co-processor can be inserted. This processor assists the CPU in performing its mathematical operations (if the programs have been designed to use it). However, computers above the 486 grade do not contain a separate Math Co-processor as it is already in-built in the CPU chip.
(g) RAM Chips:
RAM stands for Random Access Memory. Ram chips are components that help the computer to hold program and its data temporarily while the computer is working. When the PC s switched off, anything held in the RAM is lost. Information of any kind can be stored permanently only when it is stored in the hard disk. RAM chips come in memory sizes of 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB and so on.
(h) RAM Chip Slot :
These slots are meat to expand the computers random access memory by incorporating additional RAM chips.
(i) Over-Drive Chip:
The Over-Drive chip increases the processing speed so that the performance of the computer is improved. This is generally not necessary for ordinary PCs and s used by corporate companies.
SCSI stands for ‘Small Computer System Interface’ (pronounced skuzzy). An SCSI provides an internal connector which in turn allows you to connect the computer to an external storage device (like DVD drive, Hard disk drive, CD drive, Zip drive etc.).
(K) Power Supply Unit:
The components in a PC can work only when they get electric supply. Most components require a 5 volt supply while the floppy and the hard disk require about 12 Voits. Connecting the components to a normal household electric supply would blow these up. The power supply unit safeguards the PC components by converting high-voltage current to low voltage.
(l) Disk Drive Control Card:
This card controls the disk drive motors of the PC and transfers data to the control circuitry and directs the read/write heads to access data on the disk. Earlier computers carried a slot in which the card could be inserted. Nowadays, computers do not contain a separate slot for the disk drive control card. Instead, it is permanently inserted in the motherboard.
(m) DisplayA/ideo/Graphic Card:
Display card is used to display the data to the user. It is indirectly linked with the computer memory. Nowadays, it is inbuilt in the motherboard. Two types of display cards are available. These are the PCI graphics card and the AGP card.
(n) Printer Adaptor Card:
The information in he computer is stored in its memory. To make use of this information, you need to either see it on the monitor or print it. The display/printer adaptor card is the link between the PCs memory, die monitor and the printer. It displays the information on the monitor as well as allows it to be printed.
(o) Expansion Slots:
Expansion slots are long and narrow connectors which allow you to piug in expansion card (also called adaptor cards), like the sound card, network card etc. these expansion cards offer some extra options which are generally not available on a PC.
(p) ROM Chips:
Read Only Memory (ROM) chips have data written on them during manufacturing, that tells the CPU the tasks that it needs to carry out when the PC is switched on. This data remains in the PC even when it has been switched off.
(q) Sound Card:
This card allows you to play sound and music. The sound card converts the digital information into electrical signals that speakers use. When the speaker is connected to the sound card, the sound can be heard on the speaker.
The Shape of a System Unit (NIELIT CCC Study Material)
The system units come in two shapes – the desktop and the tower type. However, computers having the desktop type System Unit are becoming obsolete and the tower type system is gaining popularity. Irrespective of the shape of the system unit, all PCs function essentially in the same way. Following are illustrations of desktop type and tower type system units:
Desktop Type System Unit Image
Tower Type System Unit Image
CCC Desktop Type System Unit Study Material
The Laptop Image
Tower Type System Unit
CCC The Laptop Study Material in English
Portable computer called Laptops have also become quite popular. Laptops are also called notepads and consist of a System Unit, a keyboard and a monitor-all integrated to form a single Unit. The portable computers have the same components as the computer having the Desktop and the Tower type System Units. However, the only difference lies in their sizes. When closed, the portable computers are of the size of a notebook. Laptops are useful for people who are always on the move (businessmen, executives, journalists, etc.).
The Front Part of a System Unit (Download NIELIT Study Material For CCC PDF)
Let us now observe the front visible portion of the system unit. The various components seen in the front part of a System Unit and their functions are as follows:
(a) Power switch:
The power on/off switch is used to turn on r off the power to the PC.
(b) Reset button:
This button helps you restart your computer without disconnecting the power supply.
The front panel of the system unit may display a variety of coloured indicator lights including power and turbo signals. These lights are used to indicate whether the hard disk, the floppy disk or the CD-ROM is being read or written.
(d) Floppy Disk Drive:
The floppy disk drive is used to read the information stored in floppy disks (also called a diskette). The System Unit contains a slit n which the floppy disk can be inserted.
(e) CD-ROM Drive:
A CD-ROM drive is used for reading the information stored on CD-ROM disks.
(f) Removeeble Storage Drives:
Rcmoveable storage drive is an external device that can be connected to the computer. It allows you to store a large amount of data. Zip disk, for example, is a removeable disk which looks like a 2″ floppy disk, and has the capacity to store enormous amount of data (100 MB or more). Other external storage drives are CD writers and rewriters.
The Backside of a System Unit (CCC SYllabus in English 2018 2019)
The back of the System Unit contains ports of various types. These are the parallel Port, the Serial Port and the Universal Serial Bus (USB). Following are the ports that a computer contains:
(a) power IN and OUT Sockets:
These sockets have cables plugged into them which carry the electrical outlet to the System Unit, and from the System Unit t your monitor.
(b) Serial Ports:
Serial ports connect the PC to a mouse or a modem. Most PCs are fitted with two serial ports.
(c) Video Moionitor port :
A cable form the monitor plugs into the video/monitor port and carries the information to be displayed on the monitor.
(d) Parallel port:
The parallel port is usually used for connecting the computer to a printer. Very often, it is referred to as the printer port. Its biggest advantage is its data transfer speed which is about eight times faster than the serial port.
(e) Keyboard Port:
The cable from your keyboard plugs into the keyboard port.
(f) USB Port:
USB stands for ‘Universal Serial Bus’. A USB port is used for connecting any device (mouse, printer etc.) with a USB connection.
(g) Fan Housing :
During operation, the electronic components in a PC generate a lot of heat which is liable to overheat the system. To remove excess heat from the system, a fan is placed at the back of the unit.
(h) Audio -Jack :
An audio jack is used for connecting devices such as speakers, head-phones or microphones.
(i) Modem Jack :
This jack is mainiy used in case of internal modems.
(j) SCSI Port:
The Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) port is used to connect the external hard drive, the DVD drive or the scanner.
(k) Network Port:
The network port allows you to connect a computer to other computers in a network.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) (CCC Study material in PDF)
The CPU is the most important part or a computer where actual processing, i.e. rhe mathematical and logical processing, cakes place. It is the brain behind all PC operations. Technically, the CPU is also referred to as the Microprocessor, Within a CPU, instructions are written in the form of computer programs which are carried out by the CPU sequentially. The power of a CPU lies in its ability to carry out these instructions rapidly and flawlessly. The processing capability of a PC is measured in terms of the amount of data processed by its CPU in one operation.
Within a CPU, instructions are written the form of computer programs which are carried out by the CPU sequentially. The power of a CUP lies in its ability to carry out these instructions rapidly and flawlessly. The processing capability of a PC is measured in terms of the amount of data processed by its CPU in one operation
The sped of the CPU-
The speed of the CPU is measured in MegaHertz (MHz). A computer has a central clock ticks, faster the computer runs. Over the years, there has been a gradual improvement in the speed of a computer. Intel, one of the biggest software companies n the world, has recently manufactured a Pentium IV processor which has remarkable speeds of 1700MHz (1.7 GigaHertz). Apart from Pentium, there are other processors like Intel Celeron, AMD Duron etc. which have a range of 600 MHz to 1200 MHz (1.2 GHz) and even beyond. The Intel 4004 processor which was one of die first processors of the world. Figure W-1.8 shows the Intel Pentium II processor.
The Intel 4004 Processor Image
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The Memory of a Computer (DOEACC CCC Online Practice Set en English)
Despite being the brain behind all the operations in a computer, the CPU needs to be supplied with the data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what it should do. Once the CPU has carried out the given instructions, it stores the result in its storage space, system memory is of two main types. These are the Random Access Memory (RAM) and the Read Only Memory (ROM). Let us undertake a discussion on these.
RAM (Random Access Memory):
the Random Access Memory is the most important form of memory that a computer uses. the capacity of the RAM is usually measured in Mega Bytes (MB).
Read Only Memory): This type of memory is permanent and cannot be changed. ROM stores instructions to initialize all computer parts while booting (i.e. each time when you switch on your computer). ROM is non-volatile. This means that its contents do not disappear when the power to the system is turned off.
PROM stands for ‘Programmable ROM’. CPROM stands fro ‘Eraseable programmable ROM’ and is a special type of ROM which can be programmed by the user. Its contents can also be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light. EEPROM stands for ‘Electrically Eraseable programmable ROM’. It is another special type of a ROM which can be programmed by the user. Its contents can be erased by applying a specific voltage t one of its input pins while providing the appropriate timing signals.
The Monitor (CCC Exam Study Material in English)
The monitor of a PC words like a television screen. It displays text characters and graphics in colors or in shades of grey. The monitor is sometimes also known as scree, display or a CRT (Cathode Ray Tybe). Images produced on a PC depend on the screen you use. Am image is made up of tiny dots called pixels.
The Monitor Image
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The Mouse (CCC Study Material)
Computer mouse is a device whose shape resembles an actual mouse with a rubber ball (tracking ball) embedded at its lower side and buttons on the top. This hand-held device allows you to control your computer without having to type instructions from the keyboard. It serves to move around your computer screens as well as to activate command. Working on a computer through a mouse is easy and faster as compared to the keyboard. Certain software like Paint, CorelDraw, Photoshop etc. meant for designing cannot work without a mouse.
The Mouse Image
DOEACC CCC The Mouse Study Material in Hindi
The mouse is generally available in two types which are :
(i) Two Button mouse; and
(ii) Three Button mouse
The Keyboard (DOEACC CCC Study Material)
Keyboard is a typewriter-like device, which contains keys to feed information into the computer. In general, keyboards are available in two models :
The Keyboard Image
DOEACC CCC The Keyboard Study Material in Hindi
The standard keyboard with 83-84 keys; and the enhanced keyboard with 104 keys or more shows an Enhanced Keyboard.
Storage Media- The Disk (DOEACC CCC Online Exam Study Material in English)
Important files are stored in the PC for future use. However sometimes these files my get corrupted when a virus attacks your system. To save the important files, we use magnetic disks. Magnetic disks help you safeguard important data and information by storing them permanently. Disks storage systems are essentially based on magnetic properties.
The External Zip Drive Image
CCC The External Zip Drive Study Material
The Printer (NIELIT CCC Study Material)
The printer is a device that produces images (number, alphabets, graphs, etc.) on paper. After creating a document on the computer, you can send it to the printer for printing its hard-copy which is generally called a printout (fig).
A Laser Printer Image
NIELIT A Laser Printer Study Material
The Scanner (CCC Study Material 2018 2019)
The scanner is a device that can transfer typed or handwritten texts, graphs, diagrams and photographs to the computer. Instead of making a duplicate copy on paper of the required data or photograph, scanner stores them in the memory to the computer.
A Scanner Image
CCC A Scanner Study Material in English
The Modem (CCC Study Material English 2018 2019)
The modem is technically called the ‘Modulator Demodulator’. It is an electronic device which helps transmit programs and data locally or around the world through the telephone lime.
The External Modem
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Different Types of Computers (CCC Study Material in PDF Download)
A wide variety of computers are available in the market today. Computers differ from one another according to the speed of the speed of their processors (also called chips). Intel, a software company, was the first to introduce high speed processors like PII, P III, PIV, Dual Core, Core-2-dual, I-3, I-7 etc.
Following are the main category:
- Personal Computer (PC)
- Tablet PC
- Self Destructing Computers
The Desktop (CCC Study Material NIELIT)
The desktop contains small pictures which represent the different programs that are installed in the PC. These pictures are called icons. Following are the icons that you will usually notice on your desktop:
This displays the contents of your computer (i.e. the files on the C: drive or the A: drive)
this displays a place where you can store your work and retrieve it later on.
this is similar or a dustbin and contains items that are deleted from your computer. The programs represented by these icons can be direcdy opened by double-clicking the icons. Besides icons, the desktop contains the following:
The Start button can be clicked to open the Start menu, which gives you access to all the programs on your computer.
this bar is situated at the extreme bottom of the desktop and displays the clock and the status of an application. For example, the bar shows a printer icon if you or a CD icon if you are using a compact disk.
Many more icons are available on your desktop and may very from computer to computer. Since icons are shortcuts to a programs, they can be created easily for programs in your PC. You will learn about creating icons on your in the later chapters.
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE (CCC Practice Set Paper)
A personal computer can help you work in many areas. It can help you to write letters, create letterheads and charts, balance your chequebook, draw a picture, inquire about stock prices, play games do homework etc. you can also listen to music and watch movies. For any personal computer to function, you will need the following essential components:
- Software: This consists of the following:
Utility software (optional)
Hardware refers to the items in a PC that you can touch and feel, i.e. the keyboard, monitor, mouse and the System Unit. Additional hardware components that can be added to your system are the modem, printer, scanner etc.
Software constitute the logical programs that handle the different components of your PC and help them to interact with one another in a hassle-free manner. They cannot be touched or felt. The words program, application and software are all used interchangeably -in fact, they all mean the same thing.
If you want to type letters, the recommended software is a word processor program like Paint, CorelDraw, Pagemaker, etc.
specific work requires specific software. There are different software for writing letters, making calculations, combining pictures and text, setting up a database or a spreadsheet and so on. The following is a brief introduction to the types of software which are commonly used to expand the capabilities of your computer:
Word Processing Programs:
the word processing software enables the PC to functions like a sophisticated typewriter. This software allows you to type a letter or report, and change words or move blocks of text around with ease. Further, word processing programs also count your words and even check spellings. Amongst the various work processing programs, Microsoft Word and Wordpad of Windows 98 are the most popular ones.
A spreadsheet program is meant for those who need to do a lot of calculation or financial planning. A spreadsheet is made up of cells arranged in a grid. Each cell can contain a number, text or a formula. Sometimes a spreadsheet programs may include charting tools that allow you to plot the values stored in rows or columns as a graph or chart. Microsoft Excel 2007 is so far the most popular spreadsheet program with computer users.
Database programs are useful for storing, sorting and retrieving large amount of data. Invoices or orders which may be in large number can be managed better by using a database program. Database software allows you to add new information, search through previously stored data, and print out records. An organization, for example, might require a database about its various products, suppliers, employees, and customers. Doctors, on the other hand, may need to maintain databases about patients and their individual medical histories. Today, the most widely used database program is Microsoft Access.
This type of software is used to create drawings on the computers screen. Designing packages are immensely helpful for designers and illustrators. A user can draw any type of simple as well as complex drawings using the mouse. These package cannot be used without mouse. A latest designing program called fractals is now available in the market. In this program, pictures are drawn by defining equations.
Language software :
Each computer application is developed by using codes. These codes are written in a unique language that the computer can package is known as Language Software.
The software programs that are freely available to everybody on the internet are known as Open Source. This term indicates two things. First that you do not have to pay for installing such a program on your computer, and secondly, the coding of the program is also available to all.
Multimedia software packages are the latest craze in the users. A user can very easily create animations and modify them using such programs. Using these programs, one can create 3D objects, move objects on a definite or a random path, and can animate objects in a number of ways. Some of the examples of the multimedia programs are Flash, Director, Maya and Sound Forge.
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