CCC Study Material in English Introduction to GUI Based Operating System
CCC Study Material in English Introduction to GUI Based Operating System:- NIELIT DOEACC) Computer Course on Concept (CCC) Study Material in English (Hindi) New Syllabus 2019 PDF Download In this post you are going to read CCC Study Material PDF Notes in English, CCC Computer Course Certificate is requested in all government jobs With the help of which the candidates fulfill their dream in government job. CCC Question We have already shared the post of you and hope that all the candidates will have read CCC True False and CCC Important Question Answer Paper properly.
Introduction to GUI Based Operating System (NIELIT DOEACC CCC Study Material)
Operating system is the software that performs all the basic tasks of a computer system. It works like an interface between user and computer hardware resources. It actually controls the execution of all the tasks that are performed in a computer. Some examples of operating systems are Unix, MS-DOS, Windows 98/2000/XP. It enables a user to utilize hardware resources very efficiently. So, operating system makes it easy for a user to use computer system. “An operating system is a collection of programs that controls and coordinates all the tasks and functions in a computer system and mediates between application programs and the hardware components.”
Basics of Operating System (CCC Study Material 2019)
Operating system is the main part of the system software of any computer. It mainly provides an’ environment to run the software and serves services to the computer hardware. Basically operating system has two objectives: (i) Managing the computer’s hardware (ii) Providing the interface
Functions of Operating System
The main functions of an operating system are as follows: (i) Process Management When two or more jobs are in a queue (to be processed), operating system decides which one of them will get the attention of CPU. It is very important task as various programs and input methods compete for the attention of CPU and demand memory, storage, resources, etc, for their own purposes. (ii) Memory Management As a memory manager, the operating system handles the allocation and deallocation of memory space as required by various programs. (iii) File Management The operating system is responsible for creation and deletion of files and directories. It also takes care of other file related activities such as organising, storing, retrieving, naming and protecting the flies. (iv) Device Management Operating system provides input/output sub-system between processes and device drivers. It handles the device caches, buffers and interrupts. It also detects the device failures and notifies the same to the user. (v) Security Management The operating system protects system resources and information against destruction and unauthorized use, it keeps different program and data in such a manner that they do not interface with each other. (vi) User Interface Operating system provides interface between user and hardware. User interface is a layer that actually interacts with the computer operator. The interface consists of a set of commands or menus through which a user communicates with a program.
Basics of Popular Operating System (CCC Study Material in English PDF Download)
IN ow-a-days, various operating systems are available in market and being used in various computers but most widely used are Linux and Windows. Linux Linux is an open source computer operating system designed primarily for the PCs. Linux was designed considering Unix compatibility. It’s functionality list is quite similar to that of Unix. One of the most [ valued advantage of Linux over the other platforms lies with the high security levels it ensures (It is a virus free operating system).
Elements of Linux
The basic elements of Linux are described (i) Kernel It is a core component of Linux and provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system. (ii) Shell It is a program that provides interface between user and kernel. It is used for executing the commands. It is also called command interpreter. It also provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application program etc. (iii) File System Linux treats everything as file. Even a directory is treated as a file. File system is a logical way to describe the collection of storage available to the computer. En Linux, file system mostly based on hierarchical structure. The upper most directory is known as root directory It is expressed with a slash (I). All the files and directories are connected to root directory. /Root L:..r.. /bin /dev /etc /lib lib /var /usr/ /boot /kernel /homo /bin This directory contains executable program files. /dev This directory contains the special devices files. /lib This directory contains the library files. /tmp This directory contains all the temporary files, which will eventually be deleted. /usr it contains the home directories of the users. home This directory contains your personal configuration files. Terminology related to file system are (a) Partition of a disk is a logical division of the collection of storage devices into independent units. (b) Directory is a user specified location that allows user to organise files. (c) File is the basic unit of storage in the logical file system. (d) Path is a description of how to reach a particular file or directory. (e) mode is a data structure stored in the ifie system that identifies the file and its attributes. (f) Link is a combination of a file’s name and the mode number that represent the file.
Hierarchical File System
A hierarchical file system is one that contains directories and sub-directories. Figure shows the lists standard system directories in Linux. Linux supports MS-DOS, MINIX, ISO 9660, VFAT, etc.
Adv ages of Linux
Fo!ow4”g are the advantages of Linux operating system: (jI; Portable h can work on different types of hardware in same way. (ii) Open Source Linux source code is freely available. (iii) Multi-User Linux is a multi-user system i.e. multiple users can access system resources like memory RAM application programs at same time. (iv) Multi-Programming Linux is a multi- programming system which means multiple applications can run at the same time. (v) Hierarchical File System Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files / user files are arranged. (vi) Security Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection) controlled access to specific files/encryption of data. Disadvantages of Linux Following are the advantages of Linux operating system: (I) Some hardware and software may not be compatible with a particular version of Linux- (ii) Linux requires a strong learning curve to understand, as all the commands are to be learned with syntax. (iii) Installation and uninstallation of softwares is slightly tough task. (Iv) It is a css, sensitive operating system, I.e. commands should be written with concentration.
Installation of Linux (NIELIT CCC Study Material)
Here, the installation of Red Hat Linux 7.2 will be discussed. Before listing the procedures for installing the linux operating system, some hardwires and software’s are required. These required hardwires and software’s are listed below: Hardware Requirements
- Minimum 1 GB RAM
- Minimum 2 GB free hard disk
- X86 platform such as 80386, 80486, etc
- Linux compatible sound card
- Network cards like -ISA, PCI or USB
a Controller cards (like SCSI, IDE, Firmware, etc.,) should be installed in computer.
- Input devices like keyboard, mouse, etc.
Software Requirements Disk partitioning program like fdisk or disk druid supplied by Red Hot. Linux software package.
- Operating system.
In order to install the software, you first need to create installation disk.
Create Installation Disk (CCC Course Notes in English)
To create installation disk of Linux, following steps are performed: Step 1 Insert and mount the CD-ROM and insert a blank floppy in floppy drive. Step 2 Copy the following command #dd if mnt/cdrom/images/boot.img of !dev/FdO bs = 1440K on command prompt and press enter. Step 3 Now, boot the computer with the help of any one of the following methods:
a floppy installation disk
- DOS command line
a a network using FTP or HTTP protocols.
- in partition of hard drive to hold installation software.
Partitioning of Hard disk (CCC Notes in English Download)
It is a very important step and based on the knowledge of existing hardware. The planning process should also take into consideration the future expansion of the system, knowing how to allocate the hard disk space for each of the Linux software is a real big challenge every Linux system administrator has to take. Hard disk is divided in following partitions for Linux system: (a) /swap directory about double of the RAM size. (b) /roots directory About 60°/o of the available space. (c) bin directory About 20°/o of the available space. (d) /usr directory Remaining space of disk.
Booting Process of Linux (CCC NIELIT Book PDF Download)
Once the operating system of Linux is loaded, kernel takes over and performs the needed operations: (a) Initializes the RAM disk image. (b) Performs timing tests. (c) Parse for any boot time kernel arguments. (d) Recognize, sets-up and initializes the CPU. (e) Sets up kernel memory and process handling. (f) Opens a console for displaying kernel boot messages. (g) Initializes configured system devices. (h) Starts memory handling. (i) Sets up and mounts the file system. (j) Starts the init command. (k) It will show the “Login Prompt”. User Interface The use interface is one of the most important parts of any operating system because it allows users to easily access the applications and the hardware. The user can interact with the computer by using main’s two kinds of interfaces: Character User Interface (CUI) This is a mechanism of interacting with a computer system or software by typing commands to perform specific tasks. Programs with character user interface are generally easier to automate via scripting. CUI only use text types one after another just as commands used in MS-DOS. Graphical User Interface (GUI) this is a computer program that enables a user to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols, visual metaphors and pointing devices. This operating system use icons and menus to carryout commands. The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation in 1970s. GUls can be found in hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, etc.
Windows (CCC Notes in English)
Window is an operating system program that communicates your instructions to the actual computer hardware and displays the results. It is based on Graphical User Interface (GUI). It is developed, marketed and sold by Microsoft. The first i dependent version of MS-Windows, version 1.0 reused in 1985. Now-a-days Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7 and 8 are the most widely used operating systems. Windows XP is an operating system introduced in 2001 by Microsoft.
When you turn ON the computer then the first screen, which will display on the computer is known as desktop. The background image of desktop is called as Wallpaper. A small arrow or blinking symbol, moving on the desktop is called as Cursor. Desktop contains Start Menu, Task Bar, Icons, etc. Some important components of desktop are described below: Icons A small image of a program shown on the desktop with program name, is known as Icon. Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs and other items. When user double click or open an icon, the associated file or program will be opened. If the user right click on the icon, the various properties of icon are displayed. An icon can be moved on screen from one place to another by dragging the mouse. Some of the icons displayed on desktop are as follows: (i) My Computer It is the most important icon on the desktop, which contains icons of document folders, hard disk’s partition, each removable disk drive, etc. (ii) Recycle Bin It is also a form of icon on the desktop, which contains deleted ifie, folders or shortcuts. If we delete a file or folder, then it goes to recycle bin. (iii) Shortcut It is an icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file. (iv) My Document This folder contains all your files, which you have created and saved in it. This folder contains all types of file formats like Word processor, Excel, PowerPoint, Image, etc. (v) My Network Places It consists of all network connections, which make possible to connect the computer with network. Task Bar Initially, the long horizontal box at the bottom of our desktop is known as task bar. Generally, task bar consists of three parts:
- Start Button
- Middle Section
- Notification Area
Start Menu The Start menu is the main gateway- of our computer’s program such as file, balder and settings. Start menu also contains most recently opened program. Some options of Start menu are as flows: (i) All Programs (ii) Help and Support (iii) My Documents (iv) Control Panel (v) Search (vi) Log Off (vii) Turn Off
To run a program, follow the given steps: Step 1 Click the Start button on desktop. Step 2 Take the mouse pointer on All Programs. By doing this, list of all programs will be displayed on right side. This list is known as Program menu. \ Steps 3: In this Program menu, you can run any application by double clicking (or right clicking) it.
Structure of a Window
Window is a rectangular area which provides an environment to run many programs. It allow a user to work with multiple programs or view multiple programs at once. A window include title bar, menu bar, scroll bar, status bar, etc in it.
Title Bar It is the horizontal bar at the top of a window that displays the name of the window or the program, which is currently being used. Control Buttons Title bar contains three small buttons on its right corner, i.e. minimize, maximize or restore down _________ and close. These buttons are known as control buttons. The minimize button looks like a small dash (or minus sign). This button shrinks and places the window on the task bar while leaving the program running. To go back to this window, click on task bar where it is shrieked. The maximize button, which looks like a small window is used to enlarge a window to cover the entire desktop. After a window is maximized, the maximize button changes to the Restore down button (a). It looks like two windows near one another. If you click the Restore down button, the maximized window shrinks to its previous size (the size before you maximized it). The close button, which is represented by cross sign If you click on close button, the operating window will get closed. Menu Bar The menu bar is situated below the title bar. This bar contains various options such as File, Edit, View, Favorites, Tools and Help menu items. The menu bar can really help you in managing your daily routine tasks. Scroll Bar The scroll bar appears at the right side and/or at the bottom of a window. A window can display a document. i.e. larger than the window area, so with the help of scroll bar arrow, the user can scroll a document in the window area to bring the view of hidden portion of document. There are two types of scroll bars: Horizontal and Vertical. Status Bar The status bar is a horizontal area located at the bottom of the window in which an application can display various kinds of status information like current window’s state, background tasks (such as printing, scanning, etc.) or other contextual information (such as selection, etc). Tool Bar It is a strip of icons on a window that provides quick access to certain functions (options). These options are also known as tools. Simple Setting of Operating System In Windows, most of the changes are done in control panel. Settings for the mouse, display, sound, network and keyboard represent just a few examples of what may be modified in control panel. To go on control panel, click on start button and then click on control panel. Control panel provides two different types of views i.e. Classic View displays all the small programs for a quick access to them. Category View is the default view of control panel. It will display the main categories of Windows as shown below:
Changing System Date and Time To change your computer’s date and time by double-clicking your notification area (on right-side), follow the given steps:
Step 1 Move your cursor to the bottom-right of your screen, the area where your clock is located. Step 2 Right click your clock. Step 3 Move your pointer to ‘Adjust Date! Time”. Step 4 When the menu shows up, click the pointer on the element of the time or date you like to change. Step 5 Make your correction Step 6 Click “OK’. Changing Display Properties The display properties, include the settings of wallpaper, screensaver, color, font, etc. To show the display properties dialog box, follow the given steps:
Step 1 Click the Start button, Step 2 Then, click on control panel window. Step 3 Click on appearance and theme. Step 4 Then, double click on display con to open it. Did you know? You can also open the display properties dialog box by doing right click on empty space on the desktop and choose properties. To Add or Remove Windows Components To add or install a program, follow the given steps: Step 1 Click Start, click Control Panel and then double click Add or Remove programs. Steps 2 Click the Add New Programs icon, a window will open. Click on CD or Floppy command and then click Next. Step 3 Now Windows will search for the set-up of the program and after getting the program, double click on that program and follow the further instructions displayed on screen. To Remove a program that is installed on your computer, follow these steps: Step 1 Click Start, click Control Panel and then double click Add or Remove Programs.
Step 2 In the currently installed programs box, click the program that you want to remove and then click Remove. Step 3 If you are prompted to confirm the removal of the program, click Yes. Changing Mouse Properties To change the mouse related settings, follow the given steps: Step 1 Start —* Control Panel — Printers and other Hardware -4 Mouse
In mouse properties dialog box, you can change the functions of right and left mouse buttons with the help of button tabs. Apart from this, speed of double click and the appearance of mouse pointer can also be changed. Step 2 To change the behavior of mouse, pointer options is used. By using it, you can change mouse speed. For this, click the check box of Enhance Pointer Precision. Together with these, you can also make changes in pointer trails, hiding/dehiding of pointer while typing, etc. Step 3 To change the properties of scroll wheel, Wheel tab is used. You can change the scrolling settings according to your need and wish. Step 4 Hardware tab is used to know the status of the device and if there is some problem with the device, it will Troubleshoot it. Adding or Removing Printers To print a document, you need to connect a printer directly to your computer. Printer Wizard provide a simple way to installing printers. Add Printers To add printers follow the given steps: Step 1 Open Printers by clicking the Start button — Control Panel —, Hardware and Sound —4 Printers. Step 2 Click Add a printer. Step 3 In the Add Printer Wizard, select Add a local printer.
Step 4 On the Select a printer port page, make sure that the Use the following port option button and select the recommended printer port and then click Next. Step 5 On the Install the printer driver page, select the printer manufacturer and model, and then click Next. Step 6 Complete the additional steps in the wizard, and then click Finish Do you know? You can’t remove a printer, if you have items in the print queue. If items are waiting to print when you try to remove a printer, Windows will wait until printing is complete, and then remove the printer. Remove Printers To remove printers, follow the given steps: Step 1 Open printers by clicking the Start button — Control Panel — Hardware and Sound —* Printers. Step 2 Right-click the printer that you want to remove and then click Delete. If you cannot delete the printer, right-click it again, click Run as administrator, and then click Delete. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Files and Directory Management Files Files are the collection of data stored on auxiliary storage medium. In Windows, files are the basic unit to store data. The name given to a file or document by the user is called file name. In Windows XP, files and folders are organized with the help of directory management. To view all the files and folders on computer, My Computer icon is used. Click on My Computer icon, My Computer window will appear. In this window, you can see the hard disks and their partitions. Type of Files In Windows operating system, various types of files are identified with various extensions. Extension File Type .txt Text file .exe Executable tiles .doc Document file .xls Excel file Folders It is a container you can use to store files. ‘Folder can also store other folders, i.e. sub folders also. You can have libraries to access your files and folders and arrange them in different ways.
- Document Library It is used to organize and arrange word processing documents, spreadsheets, presentation and other text related files.
- Picture Library It is used to organize and arrange your digital picture.
- Music Library It is used to organize and arrange your digital music, such as songs etc.
- Video Library It is used to organize and arrange your video, such as clips, recording, etc
Creating New Folder A folder is a directory of files and folders on your computer. There are several ways to create a folder. create new folder, follow the given steps: Step 1 Open up the hard drive you want to create a folder in. Step 2 Click the file menu. Step 3 From the menu that drop down, move your mouse pointer to new. A new folder will be created in your current drive.
Naming and Renaming Files and Folders To rename a file or folder, follow the given steps: Step 1 Click the file or folder to select it. Step 2 Click Rename this file or folder, Step 3 With the name selected, type a new name, or click to position the insertion point and then edit the name. Step 4 Press Enter. Opening Files and Folder To open the files and folders, follow the given steps: Step 1 Go to the folder/file you want to open. Step 2 Double or right click it. Step 3 Complete the desired task you want to do with that folder/file. Step 4 When you’re done, click the Close button. Moving or Copying Files and Folders Sometimes you will need to move a file from one folder to another, or copy a file from one folder to another. Moving a file or folder on the same disk relocates it whereas dragging it from one disk to anotier opies it so that it appears in both location. When the destination folder or drive is not visible, you can use the cut (to move), copy and paste commands on the edit menu to move or copy the items. To move a file or folder: Step 1 Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to copy or move. Step 2 Select the files or folders you want to move. Step 3 Click move the selected items, move this file or move this folder. Step 4 Click the plus sign (+) to display the destination folder. Step 5 Click Move. Delete Files and Folders When you organize the contents of a folder, disk, or the desktop, you might find files and folders that you no longer need. You can delete these items or remove them from the disk. We follow some steps to delete files and folders: Step 1 Select the files and folders you want to delete. Step 2 Click Delete this file or Selected items. Step 3 Click Yes to confirm the deletion and place the items in the Recycle bin. Step 4 On the Desktop, right click the Recycle bin icon and then click Empty recycle bin. Do you know? You can undo a deletion, If you accidentally delete a file, click the Edit menu and then click Undo delete, Windows XP remembers your last three actions. To Restore Files and Folders Sometimes, you delete a file or folder by mistake. So, to undelete a file/folder, follow these steps: Step 1 Double click the Recycle bin icon on the desktop. Step 2 Select the items or item you want to restore. Step 3 Click Restore this item or Restore all items.
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